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DEA Unveils New Rule To Finally Allow More Marijuana Growers For Research

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The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) announced on Friday that it will be taking significant steps to expand marijuana research.

The agency is proposing a rule change that would enable it to approve additional cannabis growers and diversify the types of marijuana available to be used in studies. The move comes more than three years after the agency initially said it was accepting applications for additional marijuana manufacturers.

DEA stressed throughout the new notice that it will have sole ownership over any marijuana that’s cultivated for research purposes. That includes any cannabis that’s stored at cultivation facilities. This appears to be a fundamental change in policy. As it stands, a single facility in Mississippi is authorized to grow cannabis through a contract with the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), and DEA does not maintain ownership over its products.

“The Drug Enforcement Administration continues to support additional research into marijuana and its components, and we believe registering more growers will advance the scientific and medical research already being conducted,” Acting Administrator Uttam Dhillon said in a press release. “DEA is making progress to register additional marijuana growers for federally authorized research, and will continue to work with other relevant federal agencies to expedite the necessary next steps.”

A 60-day public comment period will be open for individuals to provide feedback on the proposal, which will be formally published in the Federal Register on Monday.

After DEA said in 2016 that it would allow more cannabis cultivators, 37 institutions submitted applications. Many applicants grew frustrated with inaction on their proposals, and one filed a lawsuit alleging that the agency was deliberately avoiding making good on its pledge. The plaintiff won a procedural victory in that case, with the court mandating that DEA take action.

However, because the agency did provide an update on the status of its process, the suit was dismissed last year. DEA argued that the high volume of applicants to manufacture cannabis, as well as what it saw as complications arising from international drug treaties to which the U.S. is a party, meant that it would have to develop new regulations to approve them.

“This is an important step and a byproduct of the legal action we filed last summer,” Sue Sisley, a researcher with the institution that filed the suit, told Marijuauna Moment. “The agency indicated it would propose new rules to govern approving new applicants to manufacture marijuana for research, and these appear to be those rules.”

Lawmakers have repeatedly pressured the agency to expedite the process of allowing more cannabis to be grown for studies. Last year, thirty bipartisan members of the House and Senate sent a letter to the Justice Department, urging officials to approve additional applications.

Attorney General William Barr has said he favors expanding research opportunities and testified at a Senate Appropriations Committee hearing last year that it’s something he’s “ been pushing very hard over the last few weeks.” He also said at that meeting that he’d prefer some level of federal regulations over cannabis as opposed to maintaining the status quo of prohibition.

His interim predecessor, Matthew Whitaker, had previously told Congress that international treaty obligations were complicating efforts to authorize more marijuana manufacturers—a point that’s was disputed by the U.S. State Department’s Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement in a 2016 letter to senators.

President Trump’s first attorney general, Jeff Sessions, had reportedly interfered in the process during his time in office. The anti-cannabis official also rescinded Obama era guidance laying out enforcement guidances on marijuana for federal prosecutors.

With respect to international treaty obligations, DEA said there are five requirements that countries allowing marijuana cultivation for research must adhere to in order to maintain compliance with United Nations rules. The agency already follows three of the five, but the “proposed rule would amend DEA’s regulations so that DEA directly carries out these remaining two functions.”

Those functions are: 1) requiring cultivators to deliver their cannabis directly to a government agency in a timely manner, but no longer than four months after harvest, and 2) ensuring that the agency holds the “exclusive right of importing, exporting, wholesale trading, and maintaining stocks of cannabis and cannabis resin,” except as it concerns medical marijuana preparations.

“DEA may accept delivery and maintain possession of such crops at the registered location of the registered manufacturer authorized to cultivate cannabis consistent with the maintenance of effective controls against diversion,” the notice states. “In such cases, DEA shall designate a secure storage mechanism at the registered location in which DEA may maintain possession of the cannabis, and DEA will control access to the stored cannabis.”

Further, the agency said it will control “importing, exporting, wholesale trading, and maintaining stocks,” and it may “exercise its exclusive right by authorizing the performance of such activities by appropriately registered persons.” It will also require written notice from cultivators about their estimated harvest date. That notice should be submitted at least 15 days prior to harvest.

“It should be noted that the timing of when DEA would take physical possession of the crops, if delayed, would not only increase the risk of diversion, but would also adversely impact the quality of the crop,” DEA said.

“If this proposed rule is promulgated, the following key changes are anticipated: more persons will be authorized to grow marihuana, DEA will purchase and take title to the crops of marihuana, and DEA will, with respect to marihuana, have the exclusive right of importing, exporting, wholesale trading, and maintaining stocks,” the notice states. “These changes would mean that authorized purchasers of bulk marihuana to be used for research, product development, and other purposes permitted by the CSA may only purchase from DEA, except that DEA’s exclusive rights would not extend to medicinal cannabis or cannabis preparations.”

DEA said this notice, which also lays out criteria for eligible cultivation applicants, “is the latest and most significant action taken to expand the number of registered marijuana growers in the United States and underscores the federal government’s support for scientific and medical research with marijuana and its chemical constituents.”

Corey Cox, a senior associate at Vicente Sederberg LLP, told Marijuana Moment that DEA’s application approval process has been “very slow” so far, but that the new filing is a positive sign.

“Given this history, even if the rules leave significant room for improvement, their publication in the Federal Register represents meaningful movement beyond the stalling tactics DEA has employed to date,” he said.

The agency said the proposed rule would increase the diversity of cannabis grown for research purposes—including products of varying quality and potency—which could produce “more effective research” and facilitate possible development of Food and Drug Administration-approved medicines.

There’s been widespread criticism over the quality of cannabis produced at the only federally authorized cultivation facility at the University of Mississippi. Studies have indicated that the institute’s products are chemically more similar to hemp than marijuana available in state-legal markets, raising questions about the applicability of studies that have relied on the government’s cannabis on real consumers.

The head of the federal cultivation facility said last year that he couldn’t understand demand for marijuana with higher THC concentrations, arguing that even eight percent THC (significantly lower that most products in commercial markets) is “extremely” potent.

Unlike the current system, DEA would have a much more hands-on role under the proposed rule.

For example, “DEA would travel to the National Center at the time of harvest and take title and possession to the crop.” After that point, the material would be maintained, under seal, in DEA’s possession in the National Center’s schedule I vault until such time that a distribution to another DEA registrant is authorized.”

It remains unclear how many cultivator applications will be approved. An economic analysis the agency will conduct will consider two hypothetical scenarios. Under the first, DEA would consider the impact of approving three additional growers. Under the second, it would look at the effects of approving 15 more. However, the agency said that “this range of potential registrants is not necessarily reflective of the actual number of applications that DEA will grant.”

The agency also described how it will judge various manufacturer applications, explaining that it would consider their “ability to consistently produce and supply marihuana of a high quality and defined chemical composition” and also look into whether “the applicant has demonstrated prior compliance with the CSA and DEA regulations.”

That second criterion could pose problems for several companies that have filed applications—such as Columbia Care and The Giving Tree Wellness Center—which operate cannabis dispensaries in defiance of federal marijuana prohibition.

Individuals with prior cannabis convictions may also be adversely impacted in the application process, as the proposed rule states that the agency will take into account violations of federal or state law “relating to the manufacture, distribution, or dispensing of such substances.”

Another provision of the rule concerns pricing for cannabis sold or purchased by DEA for research purposes. The agency said it will negotiate a fee based on “market forces” and also potentially add an administrative cost “to add onto the sales price of the marihuana it sells to end users.”

“DEA believes that economic forces will not only drive the types, varieties and strains of marihuana materials that will be produced by growers, but that such forces will also drive the fees that DEA-registrants will be willing to pay for marihuana used for research purposes,” it states.

The agency also said it anticipates “minimal procedural change for authorized researchers who plan to acquire bulk marihuana for research” as compared to current policy and that the “only anticipated procedural change is that some researchers would acquire the bulk marihuana from DEA, rather than from NIDA.”

This story has been updated to include additional information about the proposed rule change.

USDA Secretary Again Blames DEA For Interfering In Hemp Regulations

Photo courtesy of Philip Steffan.

Marijuana Moment is made possible with support from readers. If you rely on our cannabis advocacy journalism to stay informed, please consider a monthly Patreon pledge.

Kyle Jaeger is Marijuana Moment's Sacramento-based senior editor. His work has also appeared in High Times, VICE and attn.

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California Senator Seeks Federal Clarification On Medical Marijuana Use In Hospitals

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A California senator is asking the head of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to provide clarification on whether hospitals and other healthcare facilities in legal marijuana states can allow terminally ill patients to use medical cannabis without jeopardizing federal funding.

State Sen. Ben Hueso (D) on Thursday sent a letter to HHS Secretary Xavier Becerra and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Administrator Chiquita Brooks-LaSure inquiring about the policy. Confusion about possible implications for permitting marijuana consumption in health facilities led pro-legalization Gov. Gavin Newsom (D) to veto a bill meant to address the issue in 2019.

Hueso refiled a nearly identical version of the legislation for this session, and it’s already passed the full Senate and one Assembly committee. It’s now awaiting action on the Assembly floor before potentially being sent to Newsom’s desk.

“Ryan’s Law would require that hospitals and certain types of healthcare facilities in the State of California allow a terminally-ill patient to use medical cannabis for treatment and/or pain relief,” the senator wrote in the letter to the federal officials, with whom he is asking to meet to discuss the issue. “Currently, whether or not medical cannabis is permitted is left up to hospital policy, and this creates issues for patients and their families who seek alternative, more natural medication options in their final days.”

Hospitals that receive CMS accreditation are generally expected to comply with local, state and federal laws in order to qualify for certain reimbursements. And so because marijuana remains federally illegal, “many healthcare facilities have adopted policies prohibiting cannabis on their grounds out of a perceived risk of losing federal funding if they were to allow it.”

But Hueso said that his office received a letter from CMS several months ago stating that there are no specific federal regulations in place that specifically address this issue and that it isn’t aware of any cases where funding has been pulled because a hospital allows patients to use medical cannabis.


Marijuana Moment is already tracking more than 1,200 cannabis, psychedelics and drug policy bills in state legislatures and Congress this year. Patreon supporters pledging at least $25/month get access to our interactive maps, charts and hearing calendar so they don’t miss any developments.

Learn more about our marijuana bill tracker and become a supporter on Patreon to get access.

Additionally, because the Justice Department has been barred under annually renewed spending legislation from using its funds to interfere in the implementation of state-level medical marijuana programs, the senator said, “we believe the risk of federal intervention is little to none.”

“This confirmation from CMS been quite a breakthrough and we are optimistic it will alleviate the Governor’s concerns,” the letter continues. “However, I want to underscore that, prior to receiving this response, even the Governor of California was under the impression that CMS rules prohibited hospitals and healthcare facilities from allowing medical cannabis use.”

“Undoubtedly other states are struggling with this issue, too,” it says. “As more states decriminalize cannabis and even create recreational markets, we must not forget to also update the books for the most important consumers of all—patients.”

“While ideally the federal government will remove cannabis from its Schedule I designation, I appreciate that this is a lengthy and complex process. In the interim, it would be extremely helpful if you could provide clarification that assures Medicare/Medicaid providers that they will not lose reimbursements for allowing medical cannabis use on their premises. This clarification would go a long way to help hospital staff, security, above all, patients.”

Becerra, while previously serving as California attorney general and as a member of Congress, demonstrated a track record of supporting marijuana law reform.

Meanwhile, there are efforts in both chambers of Congress to end federal marijuana prohibition.

Senate Majority Leader Chuck Schumer (D-NY), Senate Finance Committee Chairman Ron Wyden (D-OR) and Sen. Cory Booker (D-NJ) are currently soliciting feedback on draft legalization legislation they introduced this month.

Meanwhile, a separate House bill to federally legalize marijuana and promote social equity in the industry was reintroduced in May.

The legislation, sponsored by Judiciary Committee Chairman Jerrold Nadler (D-NY), was filed with a number of changes compared to the version that was approved by the chamber last year.

Read the letter from the California senator to Becerra below: 

Marijuana hospital letter t… by Marijuana Moment

Rhode Island House Speaker Says ‘No Consensus’ On Marijuana Legalization, But It’s ‘Workable’

Photo courtesy of Mike Latimer.

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Rhode Island House Speaker Says ‘No Consensus’ On Marijuana Legalization, But It’s ‘Workable’

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A top Rhode Island lawmaker says that while there’s not yet a consensus among legislators and the governor on a bill to legalize marijuana, it’s still a “workable” issue and would be prioritized if a special session is convened this fall.

House Speaker Joe Shekarchi (D) told The Public’s Radio that it’s “possible” that a special session will be held later in the year after lawmakers failed to reach a deal on competing reform proposals.

“It really depends if we can come to some kind of resolution of consensus on a couple of major bills,” he said, referring to cannabis and a handful of other issues. “If we can, we certainly would come back.” But if not, members will continue to discuss the proposals and prepare to take them up at the start of the next session in January.

“Unfairly, sometimes I have or the House gets blamed for stopping the legalization of recreational use of marijuana, when in reality there is no consensus,” he said. “If we can come to some closeness, in the several different proposals, then we’ll move some kind of legislation. But if not, it just needs more work—and it’s very workable, so it’s very much something that can happen, we just have to put the effort in and make it happen.”

Listen to the speaker discuss the marijuana legalization plan, about 1:00 into the audio  below: 

Shekarchi similarly told Marijuana Moment in an email earlier this week that he’s “not opposed to the legalization of recreational marijuana,” but “there have been very divergent proposals offered by Representative Scott Slater, the Senate, the governor and various advocacy groups.”

“As I have done with other issues, my role will be to bring the parties together and see if we can reach a consensus,” he said. “I will be working on the issue this summer and fall, and if an agreement can be reached, it is possible that one piece of legislation will be brought before the legislature for future consideration. But there is a lot of work to be done to reach consensus.”

Shekarchi and other top lawmakers have previously said they will work this summer to try to reach a compromise on the differing provisions of the competing legalization plans.

Senate President Dominick Ruggerio (D) said earlier this month that he’s not disappointed the House hasn’t advanced legalization legislation yet and that “what we really wanted to do was send it over and have them take a look at it” when his chamber passed a cannabis reform measure last month.

Shekarchi previously said that he feels reform is “inevitable.”


Marijuana Moment is already tracking more than 1,200 cannabis, psychedelics and drug policy bills in state legislatures and Congress this year. Patreon supporters pledging at least $25/month get access to our interactive maps, charts and hearing calendar so they don’t miss any developments.

Learn more about our marijuana bill tracker and become a supporter on Patreon to get access.

A key disagreement between the House, Senate and governor’s office concerns who should have regulatory authority over marijuana. Ruggerio was pressed on the issue during the recent interview and said members of his chamber agree that “a separate commission is the way to go with respect to this.”

The House and Gov. Dan McKee (D), on the other hand, want the program to be managed by the state Department of Business Regulation (DBR). Ruggerio noted that “it was difficult to negotiate on a bill when the House bill really didn’t come until late in the session.”

Asked whether he felt the legislature and governor could come to an agreement despite the differences, Senate Majority Leader Mike McCaffrey (D) said this month that “that’s what our goal is.”

“Obviously there’s some issues that different people have relative to different categories of licenses and things like that and how we’re rolling them out,” he said. “Are we going to limit them? what type of equity are you going to give to the different people in different communities so that they can get into the business? And social equity and things of that nature.”

McCaffrey was also asked about provisions related to allowing local municipalities to opt out of allowing marijuana businesses to operate in their area. He said “once the legislation is passed and whatever form is passed in, the communities have an opportunity to opt out.”

“They have an opportunity to opt out if the community doesn’t want to participate in it,” he said. “That’s their decision—however, they don’t get the funds that would come from the sales in that community.”

The majority leader also noted that neighboring states like Connecticut and Massachusetts have enacted legalization, and that adds impetus for the legislature to pursue reform in the state. .

Shekarchi, meanwhile, said this month that he doesn’t intend to let regional pressure dictate the timeline for when Rhode Island enacts a policy change. But it is the case that legalization has now gone in effect in in surrounding states like Connecticut and Massachusetts.

“I’m not in any hurry to legalize marijuana for the sake of legalizing it. I want to do it right,” he said. “It doesn’t matter to me if we’re the last state in the union to legalize it or we never legalize it, but I need to do it right.”

Social equity, licensing fees, labor agreements and home grow provisions are among the outstanding matters that need to be addressed, Shekarchi said.

These latest comment come weeks after the state Senate approved a legalization bill from McCaffrey and Health & Human Services Chairman Joshua Miller (D), which was introduced in March. The governor also came out with his own legalization proposal shortly thereafter.

A third Rhode Island legalization measure was later filed on the House side by Rep. Scott Slater (D) and several cosponsors. The House Finance Committee held a hearing on the measure last month.

The governor, for his part, told reporters that while he backs legalization it is “not like one of my highest priorities,” adding that “we’re not in a race with Connecticut or Massachusetts on this issue.”

“I think we need to get it right,” he said, pointing to ongoing discussions with the House and Senate.

The House Finance Committee discussed the governor’s proposal to end prohibition at an earlier hearing in April.

Both the governor and the leaders’ legalization plans are notably different than the proposal that former Gov. Gina Raimondo (D) had included in her budget last year. Prior to leaving office to join the Biden administration as commerce secretary, she called for legalization through a state-run model.

McKee gave initial insights into his perspective on the reform in January, saying that “it’s time that [legalization] happens” and that he’s “more leaning towards an entrepreneurial strategy there to let that roll that way.”

Shekarchi, meanwhile, has said he’s “absolutely” open to the idea of cannabis legalization and also leans toward privatization.

Late last year, the Senate Finance Committee began preliminary consideration of legalization in preparation for the 2021 session, with lawmakers generally accepting the reform as an inevitability. “I certainly do think we’ll act on the issue, whether it’s more private or more state,” Sen. Ryan Pearson (D), who now serves as the panel’s chairman, said at the time.

Meanwhile, the governor this month signed a historic bill to allow safe consumption sites where people could use illicit drugs under medical supervision and receive resources to enter treatment. Harm reduction advocates say this would prevent overdose deaths and help de-stigmatize substance misuse. Rhode Island is the first state to allow the facilities.

The Senate Judiciary Committee also held a hearing in March on legislation that would end criminal penalties for possessing small amounts of drugs and replace them with a $100 fine.

Ohio Lawmakers Officially File Marijuana Legalization Bill In Historic First For The State

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Ohio Lawmakers Officially File Marijuana Legalization Bill In Historic First For The State

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Ohio lawmakers on Friday formally introduced a bill to legalize marijuana possession, production and sales—the first effort of its kind in the state legislature. This comes as activists are pursuing a separate ballot initiative that would effectively force the legislature to consider similar cannabis reforms.

Reps. Casey Weinstein (D) and Terrence Upchurch (D) filed the legislation, weeks after circulating a co-sponsorship memo to colleagues to build support for the measure.

The 180-page bill would legalize possession of up to five ounces of cannabis for adults 21 and older and allow them to cultivate up to 12 plants for personal use. It also includes provisions to expunge prior convictions for possession and cultivation activities that are being made legal under the measure.

A 10 percent excise tax would be imposed on marijuana sales, with revenue first going toward the cost of implementation and then being divided among municipalities with at least one cannabis shop (15 percent), counties with at least one shop (15 percent), K-12 education (35 percent) and infrastructure (35 percent).

“It’s time to lead Ohio forward,” Weinstein said in a press release. “This is a big step for criminal justice reform, for our veterans, for economic opportunity, and for our individual liberties.”

The state Department of Commerce would be responsible for overseeing the program and issuing cannabis business licenses.


Marijuana Moment is already tracking more than 1,200 cannabis, psychedelics and drug policy bills in state legislatures and Congress this year. Patreon supporters pledging at least $25/month get access to our interactive maps, charts and hearing calendar so they don’t miss any developments.

Learn more about our marijuana bill tracker and become a supporter on Patreon to get access.

Individual municipalities could restrict the type and number of marijuana that operate in their area. The bill specifically states that the state’s existing medical marijuana program would not be impacted by the establishment of an adult-use market.

“This bill is much needed in Ohio, and it’s time for Ohio to become a national leader in marijuana decriminalization and legalization,” Upchurch said. “This bill is more than just about legalization, it’s about economic and workforce development, it’s about decriminalization, and it’s about healthcare! The time is now, and I look forward to getting this done in a bipartisan fashion.”

Gov. Mike DeWine (R) is likely to oppose the effort given his record, but activists have effectively demonstrated through local initiatives that voters in the state broadly support enacting a cannabis policy change.

A newly formed organization called the the Coalition to Regulate Marijuana Like Alcohol (CTRMLA) is also actively collecting signatures for a statewide ballot measure that would separately force lawmakers to consider taking up legalization legislation once a certain signature gathering threshold is met.

“I’m glad to see it! It’s added momentum toward legalization,” Weinstein told Marijuana Moment earlier this week of the ballot effort. “And hopefully a looming ballot initiative will add some incentive for my Republican colleagues to work with me on my bill.”

Meanwhile, 22 jurisdictions have adopted local statues so far that reduce the penalty for low-level cannabis possession from a misdemeanor punishable by jail time and a fine to the “lowest penalty allowed by state law.” And activists are pursuing similar policy changes in dozens of cities this year.

Don Keeney, executive director of NORML Appalachia, told Marijuana Moment that local officials have so far certified decriminalization initiatives in five cities they were targeting this year: Laurelville, McArthur, Murray City, New Lexington and New Straitsville.

Ohio activists had hoped to place a cannabis legalization initiative on the statewide ballot last year, but that effort stalled as the COVID-19 outbreak and resulting public health restrictions made signature gathering all but impossible.

Local advocates sought relief through the court system to make it so they could collect signatures electronically for 2020 ballot initiatives, but the lawsuit was repeatedly rejected—most recently by the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit, which ruled on Wednesday that the challenge was no longer relevant because last year’s election has passed and the case was therefore moot.

Read the text of the Ohio marijuana legalization bill below: 

Ohio marijuana legalization… by Marijuana Moment

GOP Senator Sponsoring Marijuana Banking Bill Proposes Controversial Welfare Restrictions For Cannabis Purchases

Photo courtesy of Mike Latimer.

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