The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) announced on Monday that it is taking steps to expand the number of federally authorized marijuana manufacturers for research purposes.
In the three years since DEA first said it would be accepting applications for cannabis manufacturers, the agency has received 33 submissions. In a notice of applications set to be published in the Federal Register on Tuesday, DEA said the “unprecedented” volume of inquiries makes it necessary to develop new regulations before approving pending applications.
.@DEAHQ is moving forward to facilitate and expand scientific and medical research for #marijuana by increasing the number of qualified growers for research. We’ve already increased by 40% in 2 years from 384 to 542. pic.twitter.com/Q26oggZefA
— DEA HQ (@DEAHQ) August 26, 2019
“DEA intends to propose regulations in the near future that would supersede the 2016 policy statement and govern persons seeking to become registered with DEA to grow marihuana as bulk manufacturers, consistent with applicable law,” the notice states, adding that the agency recognizes “the need to move past the single grower system and register additional growers.”
DEA will also open a public comment period for individuals interested in weighing in on the rulemaking process.
“I am pleased that DEA is moving forward with its review of applications for those who seek to grow marijuana legally to support research,” Attorney General William Barr, who previously voiced support for increasing the number of marijuana manufacturers, said in a press release. “The Department of Justice will continue to work with our colleagues at the Department of Health and Human Services and across the Administration to improve research opportunities wherever we can.”
DEA Announces Steps Necessary to Improve Access to Marijuana Research https://t.co/QY2PoRmRCA
— Justice Department (@TheJusticeDept) August 26, 2019
DEA said that approving applications for cannabis growers will produce “additional strains of marihuana” that will be “available to researchers.”
“This should facilitate research, advance scientific understanding about the effects of marihuana, and potentially aid in the development of safe and effective drug products that may be approved for marketing by the Food and Drug Administration,” the agency wrote.
That’s precisely what researchers have been asking for. Lawmakers and scientists alike have complained that the current source of federally authorized research grade cannabis—which is produced at a single facility at the University of Mississippi—is inadequate, with a chemical composition that’s closer to hemp than the marijuana that’s available to consumer in legalized state-level markets.
“DEA is making progress in the program to register additional marijuana growers for federally authorized research, and will work with other relevant federal agencies to expedite the necessary next steps,” DEA Acting Administrator Uttam Dhillon said. “We support additional research into marijuana and its components, and we believe registering more growers will result in researchers having access to a wider variety for study.”
Acting @DEAHQ Administrator Dhillon: “DEA is making progress…to register additional #marijuana growers for fed. authorized research…We support additional research… and we believe registering more growers will result in researchers having access to a wider variety for study.”
— DEA HQ (@DEAHQ) August 26, 2019
Rep. Matt Gaetz (R-FL), who has repeatedly criticized DEA for delaying the application approval process, told Marijuana Moment that he’s “thrilled to see that after three years, the DEA is finally moving forward with applications to manufacture cannabis for research purposes.”
The congressman also introduced legislation that would force the agency to approve additional cannabis growers. A previous version of that bill was approved by the House Judiciary Committee in a voice vote last year.
I'm thrilled to see that after three years, the DEA is finally moving forward with applications to manufacture cannabis for research purposes. During his Senate confirmation, AG Barr said that these applications would be processed, and he has kept his word.https://t.co/vt8mKjBOmO
— Rep. Matt Gaetz (@RepMattGaetz) August 26, 2019
“During his Senate confirmation, AG Barr said that these applications would be processed, and he has kept his word,” he said. “Having additional cannabis manufacturers will greatly aid American scientists and researchers. Today’s announcement is a victory for science, and brings us one big step closer to unlocking cures for America’s most vulnerable populations.”
Having additional cannabis manufacturers will greatly aid American scientists and researchers. Today’s announcement is a victory for science, and brings us one big step closer to unlocking cures for America’s most vulnerable populations. pic.twitter.com/w1nEQw1My4
— Rep. Matt Gaetz (@RepMattGaetz) August 26, 2019
Other marijuana reform advocates expressed skepticism about the announcement, however.
“Doing more research on the medicinal qualities of cannabis has near universal support, but the Trump administration has been dragging its heels on approving new licenses to produce cannabis for research,” Rep. Earl Blumenauer (D-OR) told Marijuana Moment. “After years of bipartisan pressure, the administration has finally heeded to our demands. I will continue to monitor the DEA to make sure that these licenses actually get approved. This has already taken too long.”
“There is nothing in this new release that provides any sort of time-table as to when the agency intends to license these pending applications, some of which have been pending for well over two years,” Erik Altieri, executive director of NORML, said. “At this point, the DEA has had over three years to move forward with their initial promise to expand the number of licensed cultivators for marijuana research and the news today only reveals that in that time they have essentially achieved zero progress.”
“This is the very definition of kicking the can further down the road since they have indicated none of this will move forward without the finalization of new regulations, which is essentially the same thing they told the public in 2016,” he said.
Queen Adesuyi, policy coordinator for the Drug Policy Alliance, said that for decades “the greatest harm associated with marijuana use has been from its criminalization and overenforcement—not the substance itself.”
“The DEA’s proposed steps toward expanding marijuana research opportunities are modest steps in the right direction at best. The most critical way to open the flood gates of much needed and wanted marijuana research is to deschedule marijuana,” she said. “For as long as marijuana remains a scheduled drug, there will continue to be significant federal restrictions and barriers to research, in addition to the continued individual and community-level harms of maintaining federal criminalization.”
The agency said that the number of individuals who are registered to conduct cannabis research “has increased by more than 40 percent from 384 in January 2017 to 542 in January 2019” and similarly “DEA has more than doubled the production quota for marijuana each year based on increased usage projections for federally approved research projects.”
“DEA anticipates evaluating the applications and, of those applications that it finds are compliant with relevant laws, regulations, and treaties, granting the number that the agency determines is necessary to ensure an adequate and uninterrupted supply of the controlled substances at issue under adequately competitive conditions,” DEA said.
The note about compliance with treaties references an issue the agency has previously raised when addressing the grower applications. During his stint as acting attorney general, Matthew Whitaker blamed the delay on international treaties that he said “may not allow the way that marijuana has been handled from the grow facilities to the researchers.”
But those international agreements don’t actually prohibit the government from expanding marijuana manufacturers for research purposes, the State Department said in 2016.
The new notice says DEA has been consulting with other federal agencies “engaged in a policy review process to ensure that the marihuana growers program is consistent with applicable laws and treaties.”
“That review process remains ongoing; however, it has progressed to the point where DEA is able to issue Notices of Application,” it says. “Over the course of this policy review process, the Department of Justice has also determined that adjustments to DEA’s policies and practices related to the marihuana growers program may be necessary. Accordingly, before DEA completes this evaluation and registration process, DEA intends to propose regulations in the near future that would supersede the 2016 policy statement and govern persons seeking to become registered with DEA to grow marihuana as bulk manufacturers, consistent with applicable law.”
The announcement comes days before DEA was required under a federal court order to respond to a lawsuit concerning its inaction on cannabis manufacturer applications.
Dr. Sue Sisley, who belongs to the research facility that filed the lawsuit, told Marijuana Moment in a text message that the National Institute on Drug Abuse “monopoly is broken.”
DEA “didn’t want to explain themselves to D.C. Circuit Court, and there is little chance they can deny ALL 33” applications.
“So somebody NEW is FINALLY going to get to grow for research in U.S. after 51+ year government-enforced monopoly,” she said.
Sisley’s Scottsdale Research Institute was among those grower applicants listed in the Federal Register notice. Other notable applicants include Columbia Care NY, Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, PharmaCan, the University of California at Davis and the University of Massachusetts.
In addition to moving forward on marijuana grower applications, DEA also clarified that hemp manufacturers “no longer require DEA registration for that purpose” since the crop was federally legalized under the 2018 Farm Bill and so “these applicants may respond in writing with a request to withdraw their applications.”
“Upon receipt of a request to withdraw an application that is received no later than November 1, 2019, DEA will refund all related application fees paid by the applicant,” DEA wrote. “In addition, any listed applicants who no longer wish to obtain registration for any other reason may also request to withdraw their application in writing, and DEA will refund all related application fees paid by the applicant, provided the withdrawal is received no later than November 1, 2019.”
This story was updated to include reaction from advocates.
Photo courtesy of Evan Johnson.
Austin Police Chief Says Marijuana Arrests Will Continue Despite City Council Vote
Chief Brian Manley said he would continue to enforce marijuana laws the day after the city council unanimously approved stopping arrests and tickets for low-level cases.
The day after the Austin City Council approved a resolution to stop arresting or ticketing people for most low-level marijuana possession offenses, the police chief made clear he had no plans to do so.
“[Marijuana] is still illegal, and we will still enforce marijuana law if we come across people smoking in the community,” Chief Brian Manley said during a news conference Friday afternoon.
Though cracking down on those in possession of small amounts of marijuana has never been a priority for the department, he said, police will continue to either issue tickets under the city’s “cite-and-release” policy or arrest people if officers “come across it.”
The difference, according to City Council member and resolution sponsor Greg Casar, is that the council’s move now guarantees those actions will come with no penalty. Tickets will be meaningless pieces of paper and any arrests will result in a quick release with no charges accepted from prosecutors, he told The Texas Tribune after the news conference.
“What has changed since yesterday is that enforcement, almost in virtually all cases, is now handing someone a piece of paper with no penalty or no court date,” Casar said.
The move by the City Council came as a direct result from Texas’ new hemp law which complicated marijuana prosecution across the state. Last summer, when lawmakers legalized hemp, they also changed the definition of marijuana from cannabis to cannabis that contains more than 0.3% THC, the psychoactive ingredient in the plant.
Many prosecutors, including those in Austin’s Travis County, now won’t accept pot cases based on look and smell alone, requiring lab testing to determine THC levels before accepting a case. Such testing is not yet available in public crime labs, though some counties and cities have spent money to obtain test results from private labs.
The council’s resolution prohibited using city funds or personnel to conduct such testing in non-felony marijuana cases. It also directed the elimination, to the furthest extent possible, of arrests or citations for cannabis possession. As Manley also noted, the resolution clarifies it can’t technically decriminalize marijuana, since that is state law.
The resolution gave the city manager until May 1 to report back to the council on how police were trained in this new resolution, and Casar said he hopes Manley reviews his policies before then.
Manley said in the news conference that he would continue to review the resolution, as well as police policies.
But, he assured, “a City Council does not have the authority to tell a police department not to enforce a state law.”
The Texas Tribune is a nonprofit, nonpartisan media organization that informs Texans — and engages with them — about public policy, politics, government and statewide issues.
Andrew Yang Wants To Legalize Psychedelic Mushrooms For Military Veterans
Andrew Yang says he wants to legalize psilocybin mushrooms for military veterans to help them combat mental health conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
During a town hall event at an Iowa college on Thursday, the 2020 Democratic presidential candidate was asked whether he would take initiative and allow veterans to access medical marijuana if elected. Yang replied he “will be so excited to be that commander-in-chief” that he would not only end federal cannabis prohibition but would go one step further by legalizing the psychedelic fungus for veterans as well.
“We need to get marijuana off of the Controlled Substances Act and legalize it at the federal level, make it freely available,” he said. “I say this because I’ve talked to hundreds of veterans and other Americans who benefit from marijuana as a pain relief treatment, and it’s much less deadly than the opiates that many, many people are using for the same conditions.”
“I’ve talked to veterans who’ve also benefited from psilocybin mushrooms,” he added. “They said it was the only thing that actually has helped combat their PTSD. I’m for legalizing psilocybin mushrooms for veterans as well. Pretty much if it’s going to help a veteran, we should make it easier, not harder, for them to get access to it.”
Yang’s drug policy reform platform is unique in that respect. While the majority of Democratic candidates support marijuana legalization, he’s pushed unique proposals such as decriminalizing possession of opioids and making psilocybin mushrooms “more freely available” for therapeutic purposes. The candidate also wants to invest federal funds in safe injection facilities where individuals can use prohibited drugs in a medically supervised environment and receive help getting into treatment.
He hasn’t gone so far as embracing the decriminalization of all drugs, as former South Bend, Indiana Mayor Pete Buttigieg has, however.
That said, Yang did signal that he’s open to legalizing and regulating “certain drugs” beyond cannabis, which he argued would disrupt international drug cartels. Rep. Tulsi Gabbard (D-HI) recently said she backs “legalizing and regulating” currently illegal controlled substances to protect public safety and combat the illicit market.
At the Iowa town hall, Yang went on to say that he’s particularly interested in legalizing marijuana, and he again pledged to “pardon everyone who’s in jail for a non-violent marijuana-related offense because they shouldn’t be in jail for something that’s frankly legal in other parts of the country.”
“And I would pardon them all on April 20, 2021, high-five them on the way out of jail and be like, ‘things got a lot better in the last year,'” he said, referencing the unofficial cannabis holiday 4/20.
Photo element courtesy of Gage Skidmore.
Tom Steyer Calls For Marijuana Legalization And Opioid Decriminalization
Billionaire philanthropist Tom Steyer is calling for the legalization of marijuana and decriminalization of opioid possession.
In a criminal justice reform plan released on Thursday, the 2020 Democratic presidential candidate laid out a vision for ending the drug war, which he said has contributed to mass incarceration and is enforced in a racially disproportionate manner.
“Tom believes we must end the failed War on Drugs. Based on the flawed idea that incarceration is the answer to addiction, federal and state elected officials passed severe sentencing laws that encouraged incarceration for low-level drug offenses,” the plan states. “Unfortunately, communities of color were and continue to be disproportionately affected and targeted by these laws, even when other ethnicities were committing the same drug crimes at the same rates.”
Today @TomSteyer announced a new criminal justice plan to:
– Reform the juvenile system
– Improve prison conditions
– Redirect funds to education
– Eliminate cash bail
– Release more rehabilitated people
– End the war on drugs
And much more! 👉 https://t.co/3VYRw7ioXB
— TeamTom 🌎 (@TomHQ) January 24, 2020
There are six proposals in the drug war section, including legalizing cannabis and expunging prior marijuana convictions, ending mandatory minimum sentences and empowering judges to use more discretion in non-violent drug cases, diverting people convicted of drug offenses to treatment or drug court, ending the sentencing disparity between crack and powder cocaine, sealing the records of certain drug convictions and decriminalizing opioids while investing $75 billion in treatment programs and holding pharmaceutical companies accountable.
Steyer specifically endorsed House Judiciary Committee Chairman Jerrold Nadler’s (D-NY) Marijuana Opportunity Reinvestment and Expungement (MORE) Act, which would deschedule cannabis, expunge prior convictions and set aside tax revenue to support communities most impacted by the drug war.
“Policing marijuana use has led to too many unfair incarcerations and predominantly impacted communities of color,” the plan says. It also criticizes then-Attorney General Jeff Sessions’s 2018 move on “repealing leniency given to states for marijuana laws.”
Today, I'm meeting with formerly incarcerated individuals to talk about transforming the criminal justice system through police accountability, ending cash bail, providing adequate funding to re-entry programs, and so much more. pic.twitter.com/m9lDEKWwwU
— Tom Steyer (@TomSteyer) January 23, 2020
“A Steyer Administration will also open equitable pathways to banking for marijuana businesses,” it continues. “The federal government—including the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation—should not be a barrier to marijuana businesses receiving support from their local banks.”
“Incarceration is not the answer to addiction, and low-level drug offenses should not carry a severe sentence. Tom will legalize marijuana, let states pass their own policies, expunge past records, and direct the federal government to open banking services to the marijuana industry. Tom’s administration will end the disparity between crack and cocaine sentences, decriminalize opioid possession, and invest $75 billion to address the opioid crisis.”
The opioid decriminalization proposal is similar to that of entrepreneur Andrew Yang, another 2020 candidate who said removing criminal penalties for possessing the substance is necessary in order to help get people into treatment and curb the opioid crisis. Former South Bend, Indiana Mayor Pete Buttigieg and Rep. Tulsi Gabbard (D-HI) have gone further, calling for the decriminalization of all drug possession and, in Gabbard’s case, also the legalization and regulation of illicit drugs.
“Tom supports decriminalizing small amounts of opioid possession for personal use at the federal level,” the plan states. “He will address the opioid crisis through $75 billion in new funding over ten years to resource state and local treatment programs, hold big pharmaceutical corporations and their executives accountable, and strongly enforce laws that end the illicit distribution and sale of opioids.”
This is a notable development for Steyer, who hasn’t discussed drug policy reform as much as many other candidates in the race and whose views on decriminalization of substances beyond marijuana were previously unknown.
Last year, Steyer said he supported creating a national referendum process so that Americans can made decisions about a wide range of policy issues, including cannabis legalization.
He also previously discussed his support for ending marijuana prohibition and providing the industry with access to banking, saying that he and his wife wanted to provide financial services to minority- and women-owned cannabis firms through their community bank, but federal prohibition means the business would be put at risk if they did that.
Steyer’s new plan also calls for juvenile justice reform, ending cash bail, banning facial recognition technology in policing, demilitarizing law enforcement, improving prison conditions and eliminating the death penalty, among other reforms.
Photo courtesy of Flickr/Gage Skidmore.