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Marijuana Businesses Don’t See 280E Reform Success, But There’s Still Hope

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Fairness. That’s what marijuana businesses say they’re seeking to win as part of a broad Republican tax reform plan moving through Congress this month.

To date, they haven’t had much luck, but that doesn’t mean the fight is over.

Under a 1980s federal provision — known as 280E — cannabis businesses are forced to pay a much higher tax rate than companies in other industries.

The statute was originally intended to to stop drug cartel leaders from writing off yachts and expensive cars, but today its plain language means that that growers, processors and sellers of marijuana — which is still a Schedule I substance under federal law — can’t take business expense deductions that are available to operators in other sectors.

Last week, those businesses could not get any member of the House Ways and Means Committee to introduce — never mind muster enough bipartisan support to pass — an amendment attaching a 280E fix to the tax overhaul bill. Amendments on other topics were adopted or rejected on party-line votes.

The legislation was then approved, with all Republicans in support and all Democrats in opposition, and sent to the House Rules Committee to make preparations for a floor vote.

On Tuesday, Congressman Jared Polis (D-CO) did file a 280E amendment in the Rules panel, intended for floor consideration. He described the proposal as “essentially revenue neutral” in comments before the committee, of which he is a member.

Referring to the up to 70 percent effective tax rate that legal cannabis businesses are forced to pay because they cannot take expense deductions, Polis said 280E makes their prices artificially high and “prevents them from being able to completely undermine the criminal cartels” because those organizations can sometimes undercut legal prices.

Repealing the outdated provision would be the “nail in the coffin of the criminal cartels that jeopardize the health of our kids and our safety,” he said.

But the panel, as expected, did not allow the measure to advance before the full House, as has been the case with every marijuana amendment over the course of the past year.

What’s more, the panel advanced the tax bill under a “closed rule” that blocked all 139 submitted amendments on a broad range of topics from reaching the floor.

(One of those additional measures, by Congressman Lou Correa (D-CA) would establish a 15 percent federal excise tax on legal marijuana sales with revenue earmarked toward reducing the deficit.)

Polis’s motion to amend the rule to specifically allow the 280E measure to be considered on the floor failed on a party-line vote of three to eight.

The tax bill will now go before the full House later this week where it is expected to be narrowly approved.

In the meantime, advocates are hanging their hopes on the Senate, where the Finance Committee is marking up its version of the tax reform legislation this week.

Get access to this exclusive analysis for Marijuana Moment Patreon supporters that spells out which senators cannabis interests need to win over in order to approve a 280E amendment in committee. A sufficient number of GOP members of the Senate Finance Committee have supported marijuana measures in the past to put 280E reform within reach.

How Marijuana Businesses Can Win Tax Fairness Under Trump Plan

A total of 355 amendments have been filed before that panel.

While none are listed as explicitly dealing with 280E, the legislative text for the measures hasn’t been posted online, and one amendment in particular from Sen. Ron Wyden (R-OR) is described in a fashion that seems as though it may concern the marijuana tax provision: “Amendment of a perfecting nature to help small business.”

Wyden is the sponsor of a standalone 280E reform bill similarly titled, “The Small Business Tax Equity Act of 2017.”

Advocates have had success garnering increasing bipartisan support for that bill and standalone 280E reform legislation in the House this year as compared to versions filed in the past Congress. But those bills are not going to move though committee, to the floor and to the president.

The only real hope of getting a reform enacted into law is to attach it to a broader moving vehicle like the GOP tax bill.

And now, because of the failure to approve a 280E amendment on the House side, the only hope lies in the Senate. That means either getting an amendment adopted in committee or on the floor.

The latter will be a much harder path because the bill will likely be considered by the full body under an agreement that limits the number of amendments, and Senate Democratic leaders are likely to focus their efforts on measures concerning middle-class tax relief and general tax rates for businesses.

While convincing Senate Republicans to amend their leadership’s important bill in committee is a big ask, it is seen as not nearly as heavy a lift as convincing House GOP members to vote to change the bill in their chamber would have been.

So now, industry interests are hoping that Wyden’s amendment is about 280E, that he can hold all the Democrats on the panel in support of it and that a select number of targeted Republicans will go along with the plan.

Find out which senators cannabis businesses need to target to win a 280E reform amendment in the Senate Finance Committee in this exclusive analysis for Marijuana Moment Patreon supporters:

How Marijuana Businesses Can Win Tax Fairness Under Trump Plan

Even if 280E language is adopted on the Senate side, it will still have to a survive a bicameral conference committee that merges the bill with the House version which does not contain the provision.

Wyden’s office and cannabis business advocacy interests active on Capitol Hill did not respond to queries from Marijuana Moment for this story.

If you value staying updated on cannabis news, please start a monthly Patreon pledge to support Marijuana Moment!

Tom Angell is the editor of Marijuana Moment. A 15-year veteran in the cannabis law reform movement, he covers the policy and politics of marijuana. Separately, he serves as chairman of the nonprofit Marijuana Majority. Previously he reported for Marijuana.com and MassRoots, and handled media relations and campaigns for Law Enforcement Against Prohibition and Students for Sensible Drug Policy. (Organization citations are for identification only and do not constitute an endorsement or partnership.)

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Senators Vote To Block Marijuana Banking Amendment

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A powerful U.S. Senate panel has moved to block an amendment to let marijuana businesses store their profits in banks.

In a 21 – 10 vote, the Senate Appropriations Committee tabled an amendment on Thursday that would have shielded financial institutions that open accounts for cannabis businesses that are complying with state laws from being punished by federal regulatory authorities.

Please visit Forbes to read the rest of this piece.

(Marijuana Moment’s editor provides some content to Forbes via a temporary exclusive publishing license arrangement.)

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More Banks Working With Marijuana Businesses, Despite Federal Moves

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The number of banks that are willing to work with marijuana businesses is steadily climbing, even after the Department of Justice revoked protections for state cannabis laws, new federal data shows.

By the end of March, 411 banks and credit unions in the U.S. were “actively” operating accounts for marijuana businesses, according to a report from the Treasury Department’s Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN). That’s up more than 20% from when President Trump took office early last year.

While the number of financial institutions servicing cannabis growers, processors, retailers and related businesses dipped slightly in the two months immediately following U.S. Attorney General Jeff Sessions’s decision this January to revoke Obama-era Justice Department guidance protecting state marijuana laws, the total has since started to climb again.

A growing number of states are moving to allow cannabis for recreational or medical use, but federal prohibition remains unchanged, for now. As a result, banks that accept marijuana industry money run the risk of running afoul of U.S. money laundering and other laws.

Because of financial services providers’ reluctance to work with marijuana businesses, many are forced to operate on a cash-only basis, which makes them targets for robberies.

On Wednesday, a key congressional committee voted to defeat an amendment that would have protected banks that work with marijuana businesses from Treasury Department sanctions. If that measure were enacted into law, even more financial institutions would likely feel safer working with the cannabis industry.

The new data, covering the last quarter of 2017 and the first quarter of this year, was uploaded to FinCEN’s website last month and represents the two most recent releases in a set of periodic updates on marijuana banking. Earlier data released late last year also showed an increase in the number of financial institutions working with cannabis businesses.

In addition to providing new cannabis banking stats through March 31, the latest document has new language appearing to address the uncertainty caused by Sessions’s move to revoke previous Justice Department guidance on marijuana enforcement.

A related Treasury Department memo on banking has not yet been rescinded, although Trump administration officials have said that they are reviewing it.

“The SAR reporting structure laid out in the 2014 guidance remains in place,” the new update says, referring to suspicious activity reports that banks working with marijuana businesses must file. “FinCEN will continue to work closely with law enforcement and the financial sector to combat illicit finance, and we will notify the financial sector of any changes to FinCEN’s SAR reporting expectations.”

In 2014, under the Obama administration, FinCEN issued guidance to banks about how to serve the marijuana industry without running afoul of federal regulators. The memo, which requires financial services providers to regularly file reports on customers with cannabis accounts, was meant to provide clarity and assurances to banks. But many have remained reluctant to work with marijuana businesses because ongoing federal cannabis prohibition could trigger money laundering laws and other risks.

On Wednesday, Federal Reserve Chairman Jerome Powell said that the current gap between federal and state marijuana laws “puts federally chartered banks in a very difficult situation.”

“It would great if that could be clarified,” he said. “Our mandate has nothing to do with marijuana, so we just would love to see it clarified.”

Treasury Sec. Steven Mnuchin, has suggested in several appearances before congressional committees that he would like to see marijuana businesses be able to access banking services.

“I assure you that we don’t want bags of cash,” he said before a House committee this year. “We do want to find a solution to make sure that businesses that have large access to cash have a way to get them into a depository institution for it to be safe.”

In separate Capitol Hill testimony, he said that solving cannabis businesses’ financial services problems is at the “top of the list” of his concerns.

Pending legislation to change federal laws on banking for marijuana businesses has record support in Congress. A House bill authored by Rep. Ed Perlmutter (D-CO) has 94 cosponsors, while companion Senate legislation from by Sen. Jeff Merkley (D-OR) has 18 senators signed on.

This piece was first published by Forbes.

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What Cannabis Entrepreneurs Need To Know About Intellectual Property

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This is a sponsored post by Larry Sandell of Mei & Mark LLP.

Marijuana industry leaders stay busy developing business plans, building brands, inventing technologies, creating supply chains, cultivating new strains, hiring employees, securing funding, and obtaining licenses. But it is essential for cannabis entrepreneurs to understand intellectual property (IP) rights and the benefits they can provide—and, perhaps most importantly, the potential problems that may occur when IP rights are ignored or overlooked for too long.

Because of ongoing federal cannabis prohibition, businesses in this space face additional IP challenges that don’t exist in other industries. This article will give you a quick sense of what you need to know in order to protect your rights.

Fundamentally, the law gives IP owners the right to exclude. Effectively acquired IP rights can give cannabis entrepreneurs the legal footing to prevent competitors from ripping off their brands, their technologies, their designs, and their secrets. In the cannabis space, where the law excluded so many for so long, it may seem untoward to engage in exclusionary practices, but IP is a very different animal than prohibition. As the cannabis industry continues to grow and established companies enter the market, early-acquired IP rights will prove indispensable. Beyond offering market protections and a competitive edge, IP rights can be licensed to generate additional recurring revenue, help attract investment, and enhance valuation for exits.

Without a clear understanding of the myriad types of IP protection available—and the benefits, potential pitfalls, and resource requirements of each—many entrepreneurs view obtaining effective IP protection as a daunting task. And unless an experienced IP attorney is retained, they are not wrong. Nonetheless, IP rights should be considered early and often in any business venture, especially in a nascent industry like this one. Those who procrastinate this critical business task risk permanently forfeiting rights, and may sometimes find IP roadblocks placed in their path by competitors who beat them in a race to the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) that they didn’t even know they were competing in.

IP rights vary widely, but are best understood by first considering which aspects of your budding cannabis business that you want to protect—namely: your brand, your technology, your cannabis strains, your designs, or your business secrets.

Protecting Your Brand:

Trademarks identify the source of a product or service, and serve to protect the goodwill and market recognition that a business has developed. Most commonly, a trademark is embodied in the name of a product, service, or business, its logo, or a slogan. Trademarks do not have a set expiration date, but generally remain enforceable so long as they are being used in commerce. However, to maximize rights (and avoid getting sued), it is important to search to make sure your proposed brand is “clear” prior to using it in commerce and, once in use, to effectively control your brand in the marketplace.

Federally Registered Trademarks provide the strongest protection for your brand, and enable you to enforce your trademarks anywhere in the United States. Registration requires both legal “use in commerce” and a lack of “confusingly similar” trademarks in your business area. If you aren’t using your trademark in commerce yet, but intend to do so, an “Intent to Use” (“ITU”) application can preserve your rights until you actually begin legal commercial activity. Federally registered marks are denoted by the ® symbol. Having an experienced trademark attorney file an application on your behalf typically costs $1,000-$1,500, and can help you maximize protections and avoid pitfalls.

Because marijuana is still federally illegal, the requirement for legal “use in commerce” presents a unique challenge for cannabis entrepreneurs seeking federal trademark protection. There are two proven strategies. First, you can trademark around the edges: While federal trademarks on cannabis, itself, may be unavailable, trademarks for most ancillary products and services can be obtained. For example, federal trademark registration is available for products and services supporting consumption and cultivation, and for sales of legal medical herbs.

Second, you can play the long game, and file an ITU claiming a bona fide intent to use a trademark in legal commerce in the future—i.e., anticipating that federal legalization will convert your commercial activity to legal “use in commerce.” For example, the “CANNIBIS CUP” is using this ITU strategy to play the long game. As long as appropriate extensions of time are filed with the USPTO every six months, an ITU application can survive up to three years. So, playing the long game is a bet that federal legalization will occur before it expires.

State Registered Trademarks: If federal trademark registration is unavailable, it may be worthwhile to consider registering your trademarks in the states where you conduct business. Virtually all states permit some form of state-level trademark registration. It should be noted, however, that a state-level trademark registration may typically only be effectively enforced within the boundaries of the registering state. For example, if you had a California trademark registration, you could not use it to prevent a competitor from using your trademark in Colorado. State registered trademarks may be used to fight “cybersquatters.”

While virtually all states have a “legal use” requirement, such requirement does not prohibit trademark registration in states where cannabis is legal for recreation and/or medical purposes. However, such requirement still means that your business must already be engaged in legal commerce—and is in compliance with relevant state cannabis licensing requirements—before applying for registration. Unfortunately, most states do not allow “intent to use” trademark applications. (Washington State is a notable exception.) Thus, even in a legalization state, a prospective cannabis grower might not be able to begin securing a state-level trademark registration until after she is granted a grow license in that state.

Common Law Trademarks: Even without any registration, your brand, if actually used in commerce, may retain some protection. Common law trademarks are often designated by the TM symbol, which merely signifies that the brand owner thinks that it has a valid trademark. It is, however, notoriously difficult to enforce common law trademarks. Accordingly, businesses that save money on the front end by skipping trademark registration may regret it later if a competitor subsequently tries to rip off their brand.

Copyright Registration for Logos: In addition to trademark protection, brand logos may be protected by copyright law. Through a copyright, a logo may be protected as a work of artistic expression rather than as a brand. While copyright registration is not strictly necessary, it provides for robust enforcement options. Additionally, the US Copyright Office allows you to register copyrights online for a small fee.

Protecting Your Technology:

Utility Patents protect an invention, and grant inventors the right to exclude others from making, using, or selling it for up to 20 years. In the cannabis space, utility patents can protect, for example, growing apparatuses and methods, extraction techniques and chemical compositions, smoking and vaping devices, software, and even plants themselves (see below). Legal use in commerce is not required, but the USPTO carefully examines each patent application to ensure that the claimed invention is adequately described, novel (new), and nonobvious. In the US, a utility patent application must be filed within one year of the first public disclosure or offer for sale of the invention. Entrepreneurs who miss this deadline permanently forfeit their ability to secure a patent. Obtaining a high quality, enforceable patent typically requires retaining an experienced patent attorney to prepare and file the application. This can cost $8,000 and up, depending on complexity of the invention.

Provisionals: Provisional patent applications may be used to delay expending these considerable financial resources for up to one year—often enough time to assess whether your invention has a good shot at commercial success. Essentially, a provisional holds your place in line for 12 months. It can protect your rights if a competitor files for a similar patent or sells a similar product during that time, and help you avoid missing the one-year deadline for filing after selling or marketing your own invention. Using a provisional application requires filing a corresponding nonprovisional utility application within the 12 months. If a corresponding application is not filed, the provisional simply expires and its contents remain secret. While provisionals have few formal requirements and are sometimes filed by inventors without attorney assistance, cannabis entrepreneurs would be wise to at least consult with an experienced patent attorney before filing to avoid pitfalls that can render a provisional ineffective. Engaging a patent attorney to prepare and file a provisional application can cost around $3,000 and up.

Protecting Your Cannabis Strains:

Utility Patents: The USPTO has confirmed that cannabis plants may be protected by utility patents. To date, issued cannabis utility patents have claimed plants with specific chemical profiles.

Plant Patents: Plant patents are a distinct form of IP protection that protects asexually reproduced plants, and the USPTO has issued at least one cannabis plant patent. Similar to utility patents, plant patents have a life of up to 20 years, and the invented strain must be both new and nonobvious. Additionally, the one-year filing requirement still applies, so a grower loses rights to file for plant patents for any cannabis strain that he sold more than 365 days ago. Finally, growers should be aware that plant patents are sometimes considered to have less value because they are directed to a single plant genome, rendering the right to exclude both narrow and hard to enforce.

Plant Variety Protection Certificates are issued by theUS Department of Agriculture (USDA), and can provide their owners exclusive rights to seeds of a new crop for 20 years. To date, no cannabis certificates have been issued. The reasons are two fold: First, a seed deposit is required, and the USDA, a federal agency, has refused to accept any. Second, certificates protect only new and distinct sexually-reproduced plants that have stable progeny. Virtually all cannabis strains of value fall outside of these requirements.

Protecting Your Designs:

Design Patents: Design Patents protect ornamental designs for functional items. For example, while the functional aspects of a vaping device may be protected by a utility patent, the way it looks—or just specific aspects of its look—may be protected by a design patent. Design patents that claim only specific design elements are broader and may be easier to enforce. Cannabis entrepreneurs in the software space should note that design patents are increasingly used to protect GUIs, especially when it comes to animated user interfaces. The same basic rules of utility patents apply to design patents, except that design patents last for 14 years from issuance (rather than 20 years from filing) and provisionals are not available. Retaining an experienced patent attorney to prepare and file a design patent application can cost $1,500 – $2,500, largely depending on the quality of drawings already possessed.

Copyright: Copyright protection can be used to protect all manner of artistic expression, whether on websites, T-shirts, or cannabis-related products. While there is an area of overlap between design patents and copyrights, design patents may (if strategically prepared) be quite broad and therefore easier to enforce.

Protecting Your Business Secrets:

Trade secrets are very different from the other IP types discussed above. Your customer lists, older secret recipes, business plans, and similar proprietary information are often best protected by keeping them secret. Still, there is always a chance that a disgruntled former employee sells or reveals your secrets, an unscrupulous competitor hacks into your computer systems, or a contractor uses your data in an unauthorized manner. Although the law varies, virtually all states offer trade secret protections that can support or compensate you in such situations. Trade secret laws, however, are typically only effective if your business had already taken reasonable steps to protect its proprietary information. An experienced attorney should be counseled to ensure that your trade secret practices are adequate under your state’s law, but uniform best practices include having all employees and contractors sign agreements that outline authorized and unauthorized data uses, having reasonable network security, and never divulging your trade secrets outside of signed NDAs.

Conclusion:

As the cannabis industry continues to grow and attract new market entrants, effectively securing IP rights has become a critical business task. Entrepreneurs who fail to assess and pursue appropriate IP rights early in the business cycle do so at they own peril. While thinking about patents, trademarks, copyrights, and trade secrets may not seem as urgent as making payroll and growing your profit margin, failing to promptly secure IP rights may undercut your business in the future, allowing competitors to rip-off the successful aspects of your business.

About the author:

Larry Sandell is a registered patent attorney with Mei & Mark LLP and has a decade of experience in IP law. He focuses his practice on drafting and prosecuting patent applications, counseling clients on strategic IP matters, litigation, and appellate practice. Larry has a passion for advising start-ups and other innovative companies, and has argued in the U.S. Courts of Appeal for the Ninth Circuit, the Federal Circuit, and D.C. Circuit. In addition to his legal practice, he is the CEO and General Counsel for a start-up medical device company.

Before entering law school in 2005, Larry fought for marijuana law reform, serving as Assistant Director of State Policies for the Marijuana Policy Project. He ran a successful ballot initiative signature drive in Nevada in 2004, putting legalization on the 2006 ballot; worked on Nevada’s 2002 ballot initiative campaign; and coordinated medical marijuana lobbying efforts in state legislatures.

Larry can be reached at [email protected]

ATTORNEY ADVERTISING NOTICE

Please note that this article may be considered attorney advertising in some states. Prior results described on this article do not guarantee similar outcomes in future cases or transactions. The opinions expressed are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Mei & Mark LLP (818 18th St., NW, Suite 410, Washington, DC 20006), its clients, Marijuana MomentTM LLC, or any of their respective affiliates. This article is for general information purposes and is not intended to be and should not be taken as legal advice.

This is a sponsored post by Larry Sandell of Mei & Mark LLP.

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